There is a common trend of labor migration for better employment opportunities to other countries which is in force since long time back. There are basically two types of labor migration which can be found in the host countries: temporary labor migrations and permanent labor migration. Temporary labor migration means when a worker moves out from his home country to some other place in search of work but on a temporary basis that is for a limited period of time whereas, permanent labor migration means the relocation of a worker in a place outside his home country with no assurance of returning back.
There are both challenges and opportunities attached with labor migration in today’s world. These challenges and opportunities have been realized by the host countries, different states and the stakeholders. They have also become conscious of the fact that though there are possibilities of negative impact of labor migration however the manifold economic, cultural and social benefits of the same cannot be ruled out. For the person who ventures out of his home or for that matter his country, in search of employment he is in a way helping his family to sustain their livelihood which he may not be able to achieve domestically. The same way thousands of populace who lack opportunities back home is only finding major livelihood strategy through migration. As regards the state, migration is a potential tool for expansion and growth and has the potential of trimming down poverty.
International migration from Asia grew noticeably in the year 1970s and 1980s. People mainly migrated to North America, Australia and also to the oil rich countries of the Middle East. The newly emerging industrialized countries in Asia saw an upward trend in labor migration from the year 1990s. Emigration and Immigration were both relevant in 1990s in the Asian countries. In this regard, countries which were experiencing immigration mostly were: Brunei, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. Malaysia and Thailand were the countries which experienced both Immigration and Emigration. Finally the countries with most emigration were: Bangladesh, Burma, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.
Migrant workers often face various problems. Violations of rights, harassments, neglect are some of the many issues faced by the migrant workers. Corruptions and exploitations often make it hard for the migrant workers to settle in their place of work. Considering the fact that the migrant workers invest their own resources to acquire new skills and therefore help in financial development of the region, they must be taken care of and their issues must be resolved for the benefit of the workers and the country as a whole.